[sacw] S A A N Post | 3 August 00

Harsh Kapoor aiindex@mnet.fr
Thu, 3 Aug 2000 00:46:56 +0200

South Asians Against Nukes Post
3 August 2000

#1. Pakistan: Citizens Peace Committee actions on Hiroshima Day in Islamaba=
#2. Recomended Reading: "Hiroshima's Shadow"
#3. India - Pakistan: Insanities of their Nuclear Establishments
( A collection of diverse news reports)


The citizens, under the auspices of Citizens' Peace Committee, are
observing the Hiroshima Day on August 6, 2000 at 4:30 p.m. at Abpara
Islamabad to emphasize the need of peace and protest against the use and
building of nuclear arms and arsenals. In the peaceful demonstration
banners carrying slogans for abolition of nuclear arms and messages of
peace will be displayed.

Everyone is requested to attend the peaceful demonstration in solidarity
with commitment for culture of peace ..... a culture of peace for
ourselves ...... a culture of peace for the generations to come .... no
more Hiroshima ...... !

Lets us join hands and work together!

Love and Peace :)

Zubair Faisal Abbasi
Citizen Peace Committee Islamabad Pakistan.



"Hiroshima's Shadow" is a collection of writings on the denial of history
and the Smithsonian controversy. The collection, edited by Kai Bird and
Lawrence Lifshultz, is now available from the Pamphleteer's Press. To
order a copy, send a request to:
The Pamphleteer's Press
Box 3374
Stony Creek, CT 06405
Tel: 1-800-473-9781, or +1 203-483-8820
Fax: +1 203-483-1429
Email: Pamphpress@a...


Jane's Foreign Report
Issue 2603
3 August 2000


Foreign Report has learned that the CIA has reported to the White
House its concerns that India may be preparing for another series of
nuclear tests.



Press Trust of India Limited
30 July 2000


New Delhi, Jul 30 (PTI) Disputing the Department of Atomic Energy's (DAE)
claims that the 1998 nuclear tests at Pokhran have generated sufficient
data, former AEC chairman P K Iyengar has warned that India needs to test
more hydrogen and neutron bombs before signing the Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty (CTBT).

India has tested five fission or atomic bombs (including Pokhran-I) and
one fusion or hydrogen bomb so far.

Iyengar was sceptical whether India could claim, just on the basis of one
hydrogen bomb tested at Pokhran last May, that it had sufficient data on
them for a nuclear weaponisation programme.

Many more tests will be needed to try out different designs and to perfect
a few of them, he told a workshop organized by a private think tank
Security and Political Risk Analysis (SAPRA) here.

If India is to develop a credible minimum nuclear deterrent, it cannot
sign the CTBT, he cautioned.

Scientific data indicated that the core of hydrogen bomb had burnt only
partially, Iyengar said.

"We cannot stop here. We must continue testing with improved designs so
that there is total burn and fusion yield is higher," he said.

In an apparent reference to AEC chairman R Chidambaram and former
scientific advisor to Defence Ministry A P J Abdul Kalam, Iyengar said
"The two scientists in Shakti-II said we don't need any more tests.. I
don't agree. We need a peer review on the status of nuclear tests."

The hydrogen bomb design included two components- a boosted fission device
(a small atomic bomb) that triggered the secondary core of the hydrogen or
fusion bomb.

The boosted fissi released about 20 kilotons (KT) of energy that triggered
the fusion core that produced another 20 KT, giving a total yield of about
40 KT, Iyengar said.

This indicated that only about 400 grams of the fusion device had burnt,
leaving a considerable amount unburnt.

"There was only a partial burning. I doubt if a complete burn wave was
established," he commented, that one cannot make larger megaton devices
with such partial-burn type devices.

According to Iyengar, India needs to test more hydrogen and neutron bombs
with complete burning of the core before it signed the CTBT.

He said that even if the designs have been perfected, India must have a
delivery system that can be used in the field by the Army.

It also needs to address the issue of a safe and reliable command and
control system, before signing the CTBT.

However, issues of non-proliferation and CTBT will become "meaningless"
with development of future fourth-generation nuclear weapons which do away
with enriched uranium or plutonium use laser beams to replace the atomic
bomb trigger.

The USA has achieved some success in such a laser-based system that does
not use uranium or plutonium, which will help it circumvent the CTBT.

Iyengar cautioned that India must conduct all necessary tests before
signing the CTBT. Once the CTBT comes into force, countries will lose
sovereignty over their nuclear programme as western nations can order
endless inspection of nuclear power plants on the merest of suspicions
that nuke weapons are being developed, he said.

Iyengar asserted that India's weaponisation did not begin in 1998. It
began way back in 1988 when atomic scientists first informed the then
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi that Pakistan had acquired capability to
produce enriched uranium from a centrifugation plant.

By 1995-96, Pakistan's programme had gathered momentum and it was not
surprising that it had exploded the devices in 1998 soon after India, he

He said the Indian nuclear explosions were more credible as scientists had
clearly announced the yield of each device detonated, unlike Pakistan
which has remained surprisingly silent on the yield.

The former AEC chairman estimated that it would take another two years for
Pakistan to make plutonium bombs. About a month ago, a heavy water reactor
went critical in Pakistan, which was the equivalent of the Cirus reactor
built by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in 1960s.

It may take another two years for Pakistan to build a plant to reprocess
spent fuel and make plutonium, he said.

(c) 2000 PTI Ltd.



The Hindu
25 July 2000


MUMBAI, JULY 24.The former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC),
Dr. P.K. Iyengar, wants a white paper comparing the country's nuclear
weapons capabilities with its perceived adversaries, speeding up of the
missile development programme and a `peer review' of the Pokharan II tests
to develop minimum credible deterrence arsenal of atomic weapons.

Dr. Iyengar, who had played a key role in the `peaceful' nuclear
explosion, the first test by India in 1974, was delivering the keynote
address here today at a seminar on `Role of Physics in National Security',
organised by the Indian Physics Association and the Nehru Centre. He also
wanted in place a mechanism to review weapons research and development.
The weaponisation should be not only speeded up but the entire system of
credible deterrence be put at the disposal of the armed forces to ensure
near-instant retaliation in case of an attack. But he felt that nuclear
security was too serious a business to be left to generals and bureaucrats
and opined that scientists should have a distinct role to play.

Later, talking to the press, Dr. Iyengar said the peer review should be
entrusted only to Indian scientists and the country had people of such
talent. He also said India should not brush aside the Pakistani test as
something done with foreign collaboration but carefully evaluate that
country's capabilities.

The AEC Chairman and an architect of the weaponisation programme, Dr. R.
Chidambaram, declined to comment on the views of his predecessor. "I am a
scientist here and not the chairman," he said.

But he asserted, in his remarks as the chief guest, that the country had
the capability to design and fabricate a range of nuclear weapons, from
sub-kiloton yield to 100 kilo-tones. He said the nuclear tests were
carefully planned and all scientific objectives were fully achieved. He
said deterrence involved maintenance of a stockpile of weapons in order to
avoid war and in this context India had a good and effective deterrence.

In the foreseeable future, countries would continue to have first and
second generation nuclear weapons, i.e. fission and fission-fusion bombs
(thermo-nuclear). While fourth generation weapons (for instance, pure
fusion explosives having no fission triggers and which do not require
either plutonium or uranium) were yet to be fully developed, the third
generation enhanced radiation weapons (neutron bombs) were not found to be
serving any purpose. Dr. Chidambaram had stated sometime ago that India
had the capability to make neutron bombs.

Nuclear weapons is not the only area where physics can contribute to
national defence, Dr. Chidambaram said. It can play a role even in cyber
warfare and bio-terrorism.

Copyright (C) 2000 Kasturi & Sons Ltd (KSL)


World News Connection
28 July 2000


Report by Hanif Khad, special correspondent

Islamabad-According to knowledgeable sources, India has completed
preparations for a thermo-nuclear test and it may conduct this test at any
time. In the event of a thermo-nuclear test by India, Pakistan would not
leave its defense at the mercy of the enemy. Just as Pakistan gave a tit
for tat reply to Indian nuclear tests in May 1998, it would likewise be in
a position to reply to a thermo-nuclear test by India.

According to experts, thermo-nuclear test is an intermediary test between
an atomic bomb and hydrogen bomb in which the destructive capability of an
atomic bomb is enhanced by fusion. On 11 May 1998 India conducted an
unsuccessful test of a thermo-nuclear bomb.

It has been learned that Pakistan's nuclear experts have made clear to the
federal government that Pakistan does not need to conduct further nuclear
tests for its defense requirements; however, if it had to raise its
deterrence level due to some other reason, it would have to face immediate
sanctions. According to experts, Pakistan's nuclear deterrence is
sufficient for its security and defense and Pakistan does not need to raise
its existing level. Experts say that India knows about Pakistan's most
modern missiles and destructive nuclear arms, so it would not dare to have
a ware with Pakistan break out.

Copyright (C) 2000


Gulf News
25 July 2000


"The Pakistan army can detonate six atom bombs in 60
hours and India will have no defence to offer," military sources were
quoted yesterday as commenting on reports on how Islamabad would respond
if New Delhi launched an attack on Azad Kashmir or else where.

A local Urdu-language newspaper quoted the military sources as saying,
however, that Pakistan would not make the first move. "But we will
certainly respond, if we are attacked by India," they said.

They said that if Pakistan had to exercise the last option of using atomic
bombs, it would pose serious threats to Indian air force and army and
render its control system totally ineffective.

The military sources, according to the newspaper said, that Pakistan had
no intention to be the first to use such weapons and its nuclear
explosions in Chaghai in 1998 were only in response to those of India.

"We want to live in peace and not in war, but we will not be deterred if
we are attacked, and we will use the extreme option as a last resort," the
paper quoted the military sources as saying.

They, however, ruled out the possibility that India was planning to launch
an attack on Azad Kashmir but noted that in that eventuality, the Pakistan
army was fully prepared to give a befitting reply to the enemy.

Our Karachi Correspondent adds: Despite Pakistan's commitment that it
would not export nuclear substance and related equipment, there are
indications that it would do so "for peaceful purposes."

This indication was given by the commerce ministry when it notified
procedure for obtaining "no-objection certificate" from the Pakistan
Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for the export of nuclear substances,
radioactive material or any other substance prescribed by the commission,
besides equipment used for production, use or application of nuclear
energy, including generation of electricity.
>From Our Islamabad Correspondent

Copyright (C) 2000 Al Nisr Publishing LLC


Press Trust of India Limited
31 July 2000


Mumbai, Jul 31 (PTI) Joint ventures in nuclear power
sector should be possible within next five years once the required changes
are made in the Atomic Energy Act of 1962 in accordance with the India's
economic liberalisation policies, according to the new chief of Nuclear
Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL).

Vijay Kumar Chaturvedi, who takes over as the new Chairman and Managing
Director (CMD) of NPCIL Monday told newspersons over the weekend that
"although it is difficult to bring changes in the Atomic Energy Act of
1962, a high-level committee is working on it and we anticipate that
within next five years the committee's effort will be favourable for joint

Chaturvedi said "we do not expect any equity from state governments as the
Centre's equity share for NPCIL will be completely withdrawn in 2010 and
the states are facing financial crunch. Therefore, it is important for
NPCIL to look for joint-ventures to meet its goal of 20,000 MWe by 2020".

However, Heavy Water, Nuclear Fuel and Regulatory will be with the Federal
Government even if a green signal is given for joint-ventures, Chaturvedi,
who would succeed NPCIL CMD C H Surendar, observed.

NPCIL has already appointed consultants to work out strategies for future
joint ventures.

Chaturvedi has plans to set new records by reducing the gestation periods
of building nuclear power stations to five-and-a-half years from eight
years through his young and energetic team of engineers.

(c) 2000 PTI Ltd.


Press Trust of India Limited
27 July 2000


New Delhi, Jul 27 (PTI) Indian Government has not
taken a decision on disposal of nuclear wastes, as it will take another
two decades of research and development to decide on the safest mode and
site of disposal, Rajya Sabha (the Upper House of Parliament) was informed

The size of the Indian nuclear power programme is relatively small and
India has more than two decades to do research on safest mode of disposal,
Junior Minister in Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) Vasundhara Raje said
in a written reply. Such a study will also take into account the safest
possible locations in the country, she added.

In general, following intensive studies and R and D over the last two
decades, it has been universally recognised that burying nuclear wastes in
deep underground granite rocks is one of the safest methods to isolate
radioactivity, Raje said.

In reply to another question she said DAE was not aware of any study
conducted by the Rajasthan University on rise in cancer cases after the
1974 Pokhran test.

The 1974 underground test was completly contained from radioactivity point
of view, and there was no contamination even at the test sites after the
explosion. "So the question of a rise in cancer cases in Pokhran after
1974 does not arise," Raje said.

American companies have only access to imagery from outer space, Raje said=

Imaging capabilities from space and availability of such information by
other countries was already reckoned in the country's security planning,
she said, adding that government is aware of the worldwide commercial
remote sensing developments and taken measures to regulate acquisition and
distribution of such data.

India has so far sent 30 satellites into space, of which 26 were placed in
orbit and 23 functioned successfully. The country has spent Rs 21.75
billion on satellites development and Rs 21.9 billion for development and
launching of rockets.

(c) 2000 PTI Ltd.



M2 Presswire
26 July 2000


The Government has entered into agreements with various countries for
co-operation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. In the context of
nuclear power projects, an Inter Governmental Agreement (IGA) was signed
between the Republic of India and former Soviet Union (FSU) on November
20, 1988 for setting up of 2x1000 MWe VVERs (Pressurised Water Reactors)
at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu.

Subsequently, a "Supplement to the IGA" was signed between the Republic of
India and the Russian Federation on June 21, 1998 to incorporate the
revised terms for the implementation of the project. Consequent to this, a
contract for preparation of the Detailed Project Report (DPR) for the
proposed project was signed by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India
Limited (NPCIL) and the Russian Organisation "ATOMSTROYEXPORT` on 20th
July, 1998. The "Supplement to IGA" has come into force with effect from
18th September, 1998 after ratification by the Government of India. The
DPR contract has come into effect from 4th April, 2000.

Presently, the DPR is being prepared and is expected to be completed by
the end of year 2001. A techno-commercial offer will be submitted by the
Russian side and approved by the Government of India, after which the
decision on setting up of the project will be taken. The total expenditure
likely to be incurred would emerge at that stage.

This information was given by Minister of State in the Department of
Atomic Energy, Smt. Vasundhara Raje in written reply to a question in Lok
Sabha today.

Copyright 2000 M2 Communications, Ltd. All Rights

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